Intelligence Framework

Intro

Intelligence data is critical to the process of monitoring for security purposes. There is always data which will be discovered through the incident response process and data which is shared through private communities. The goals of Bro’s Intelligence Framework are to consume that data, make it available for matching, and provide infrastructure around improving performance, memory utilization, and generally making all of this easier.

Data in the Intelligence Framework is an atomic piece of intelligence such as an IP address or an e-mail address along with a suite of metadata about it such as a freeform source field, a freeform descriptive field and a URL which might lead to more information about the specific item. The metadata in the default scripts has been deliberately kept minimal so that the community can find the appropriate fields that need to be added by writing scripts which extend the base record using the normal record extension mechanism.

Quick Start

Refer to the “Loading Intelligence” section below to see the format for Intelligence Framework text files, then load those text files with this line in local.bro:

redef Intel::read_files += { "/somewhere/yourdata.txt" };

The text files need to reside only on the manager if running in a cluster.

Add the following line to local.bro in order to load the scripts that send “seen” data into the Intelligence Framework to be checked against the loaded intelligence data:

@load policy/frameworks/intel/seen

Intelligence data matches will be logged to the intel.log file.

Architecture

The Intelligence Framework can be thought of as containing three separate portions. The first part is how intelligence is loaded, followed by the mechanism for indicating to the intelligence framework that a piece of data which needs to be checked has been seen, and thirdly the part where a positive match has been discovered.

Loading Intelligence

Intelligence data can only be loaded through plain text files using the Input Framework conventions. Additionally, on clusters the manager is the only node that needs the intelligence data. The intelligence framework has distribution mechanisms which will push data out to all of the nodes that need it.

Here is an example of the intelligence data format (note that there will be additional fields if you are using CIF intelligence data or if you are using the policy/frameworks/intel/do_notice script). Note that all fields must be separated by a single tab character and fields containing only a hyphen are considered to be null values.

#fields indicator       indicator_type  meta.source     meta.desc       meta.url
1.2.3.4 Intel::ADDR     source1 Sending phishing email  http://source1.com/badhosts/1.2.3.4
a.b.com Intel::DOMAIN   source2 Name used for data exfiltration -

For a list of all built-in indicator_type values, please refer to the documentation of Intel::Type.

Note that if you are using data from the Collective Intelligence Framework, then you will need to add the following line to your local.bro in order to support additional metadata fields used by CIF:

@load policy/integration/collective-intel

There is a simple mechanism to raise a Bro notice (of type Intel::Notice) for user-specified intelligence matches. To use this feature, add the following line to local.bro in order to support additional metadata fields (documented in the Intel::MetaData record):

@load policy/frameworks/intel/do_notice

To load the data once the files are created, use the following example to specify which files to load (with your own file names of course):

redef Intel::read_files += {
        "/somewhere/feed1.txt",
        "/somewhere/feed2.txt",
};

Remember, the files only need to be present on the file system of the manager node on cluster deployments.

Seen Data

When some bit of data is extracted (such as an email address in the “From” header in a message over SMTP), the Intelligence Framework needs to be informed that this data was discovered so that its presence will be checked within the loaded intelligence data. This is accomplished through the Intel::seen function, however typically users won’t need to work with this function due to the scripts included with Bro that will call this function.

To load all of the scripts included with Bro for sending “seen” data to the intelligence framework, just add this line to local.bro:

@load policy/frameworks/intel/seen

Alternatively, specific scripts in that directory can be loaded. Keep in mind that as more data is sent into the intelligence framework, the CPU load consumed by Bro will increase depending on how many times the Intel::seen function is being called which is heavily traffic dependent.

Intelligence Matches

Against all hopes, most networks will eventually have a hit on intelligence data which could indicate a possible compromise or other unwanted activity. The Intelligence Framework provides an event that is generated whenever a match is discovered named Intel::match.

Due to design restrictions placed upon the intelligence framework, there is no assurance as to where this event will be generated. It could be generated on the worker where the data was seen or on the manager. When the Intel::match event is handled, only the data given as event arguments to the event can be assured since the host where the data was seen may not be where Intel::match is handled.

Intelligence matches are logged to the intel.log file. For a description of each field in that file, see the documentation for the Intel::Info record.

Copyright 2016, The Bro Project. Last updated on March 24, 2017. Created using Sphinx 1.4.8.